Disorder of pubertal development
It is called puberty to the series of physical changes that occur in a girl’s body when she becomes an adult and include, among others: rapid increase in height, appearance of pubic and axillary hair, growth of the breasts and finally the appearance of the menstruation. These changes are produced by the release of both female (estrogen) and male (androgens) hormones from the ovary and adrenal gland, and occur in some girls as early as 7 years old and may take up to 15 years old. Alterations in the time of onset of these changes in girls may indicate precocious or delayed puberty and warrant an evaluation by a specialist in reproductive endocrinology.
Disorders of the menstrual cycle (Abnormal Uterine Bleeding)
A menstrual cycle is considered normal when bleeding comes between every 21 and 35 days and is not excessive. When this does not happen or the woman has bleeding between her periods is considered to have abnormal uterine bleeding. This may be due to hormonal alterations, structural abnormalities of the uterus, most of it benign ones such as polyps, fibroids, cervical lesions or the presence of an abnormal pregnancy. In some cases abnormal uterine bleeding may also be secondary to infections in the genital tract, blood clotting disorders, and cancer-related lesions. Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common symptom in women and causes can be corrected with surgery or medication, but requires a specialized evaluation.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is a very common disorder that can affect up to 10% of women. It is characterized by altered ovulation evidenced most often by menstrual disorders, skin manifestations or laboratory tests showing an excess of the male hormone testosterone (that causes acne, excess hair and oily skin), and visualization via ultrasound of multiple and small ovarian cysts (follicles) with immature eggs. Women with this syndrome may be at increased risk of endometrial cancer, metabolic disorders such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and infertility, and require specialized management.
Excessive Hair (Hirsutism)
Hirsutism is the excessive hair growth in places where it normally does not occur in women, such as the face, thorax, lower abdomen, back, arms and legs. It is produced by the alteration of the male hormone testosterone. The most common cause of this disorder is the polycystic ovarian syndrome, but a specialized medical evaluation is important to find out other causes and avoid future health complications. Improvement with medical treatment it is possible when this is done on time.
Prolactin Disorders (Hyperprolactinemia)
Prolactin is a hormone produced by a brain gland (the pituitary gland) that is above the nose. It’s in charge of developing the mammary gland and produce milk to breastfeed in women. Hyperprolactinemia is the excessive prolactin production, when the woman isn’t pregnant, this can produce milk secretion by the breasts and causes disorders in other hormones that control ovulation, causing alterations of the menstrual cycle, absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) and infertility. The causes can be multiple, from medications taken for other conditions, to small tumors in the pituitary gland. The treatment depends on the cause that produces it so it is recommended a specialized care for its diagnosis and proper management.
Period of transition to Menopause and Menopause
Menopause is the cessation of hormone production and ovulation by the ovary. It is characterized by lack of menstruation for a period of one year, hormonal changes and because the woman can no longer be in pregnancy. These changes usually occur gradually in a period in which the woman experiences alterations in the menstrual cycle, vaginal dryness, hot flashes, mood changes and sleeping difficulty. This period of transition from reproductive age to menopause is what is known as the perimenopause. The symptoms can be mild or often intolerable affecting the woman´s quality of life. Appropriate approach and individual management is essential to avoid complications and relieve symptoms which can last up to 5 years.
Family planning and contraception
Contraceptive methods are very safe and effective today, but not all are perfect. Each woman has some special characteristics that will give the guideline about which is the ideal method in each case. In addition to prevention of unwanted pregnancy, there are other non-contraceptive advantages of some methods. An appropriate evaluation will determine what method is best for you and your partner if you have one. Some of the most common methods are:
- Oral Contraceptives
- Transdermal and vaginal contraceptives
- Injectable Contraceptives
- Intrauterine devices
- Definitive Sterilization
In the consultation you can discuss relevant information regarding the advantages and disadvantages of each method according to your case.